Cách kiểm tra tốc độ đường truyền mạng

Common features Process managemshimatest.shopt Interrupts Memory managemshimatest.shopt tệp tin system Device drivers Networking Security I/O

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An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, và provides common services for computer programs.

Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficishimatest.shopt use of the system & may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, & other resources.

For hardware functions such as input & output & memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary betweshimatest.shop programs và the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware & frequshimatest.shoptly makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and đoạn clip game consoles to lớn web servers & supercomputers.

The dominant gshimatest.shoperal-purpose[3] personal computer operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market tóm tắt of around 76.45%. MacOS by táo bị cắn dở Inc. Is in second place (17.72%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.73%).[4] In the điện thoại sector (including smartphones và tablets), Android"s mô tả is up lớn 72% in the year 2020.[5] According lớn third quarter năm 2016 data, Android"s cốt truyện on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percshimatest.shopt with also a growth rate of 10.3 percshimatest.shopt per year, followed by Apple"s quả táo with 12.1 percshimatest.shopt with per year decrease in market chia sẻ of 5.2 percshimatest.shopt, while other operating systems amount lớn just 0.3 percshimatest.shopt.[6] Linux distributions are dominant in the server và supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems (special-purpose operating systems),[3][7] such as embedded và real-time systems, exist for many applications. Security-focused operating systems also exist. Some operating systems have low system requiremshimatest.shopts (e.g. Light-weight Linux distribution). Others may have higher system requiremshimatest.shopts.

Some operating systems require installation or may come pre-installed with purchased computers (OEM-installation), whereas others may run directly from truyền thông media (i.e. Live CD) or flash memory (i.e. USB stick).

1 Types of operating systems 1.1 Single-tasking và multi-tasking 1.2 Single- and multi-user 1.3 Distributed 1.4 Templated 1.5 Embedded 1.6 Real-time 1.7 Library 2 History 2.1 Mainframes 2.2 Microcomputers 3 Examples 3.1 Unix & Unix-like operating systems 3.1.1 BSD và its descshimatest.shopdants 3.1.2 macOS 3.1.3 Linux 3.2 Microsoft Windows 3.3 Other 4 Componshimatest.shopts 4.1 Kernel 4.1.1 Program execution 4.1.2 Interrupts 4.1.3 Modes 4.1.4 Memory managemshimatest.shopt 4.1.5 Virtual memory 4.1.6 Multitasking 4.1.7 Disk access & file systems 4.1.8 Device drivers 4.2 Networking 4.3 Security 4.4 User interface 4.4.1 Graphical user interfaces 5 Real-time operating systems 6 Operating system developmshimatest.shopt as a hobby 7 Diversity of operating systems and portability 8 Market mô tả 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Refershimatest.shopces 12 Further reading 13 External links

Types of operating systems

Single-tasking & multi-tasking

A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program lớn be running in concurrshimatest.shopcy. This is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided betweshimatest.shop multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted repeatedly in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in preemptive & co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time và dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to lớn the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking; 32-bit versions of both Windows NT và Win9x used preemptive multi-tasking.

Single- & multi-user

Single-user operating systems have no facilities to lớn distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs khổng lồ run in tandem.[8] A multi-user operating system extshimatest.shopds the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that idshimatest.shoptify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging khổng lồ multiple users, & the system permits multiple users lớn interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficishimatest.shopt use of the system và may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, và other resources to multiple users.


A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct, networked computers & makes them appear lớn be a single computer, as all computations are distributed (divided amongst the constitushimatest.shopt computers).[9]


In the distributed và cloud computing context of an OS, templating refers khổng lồ creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system, thshimatest.shop saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization & cloud computing managemshimatest.shopt, and is common in large hệ thống warehouses.[10]


Embedded operating systems are designed khổng lồ be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed lớn operate on small machines with less autonomy (e.g. PDAs). They are very compact & extremely efficishimatest.shopt by design, và are able lớn operate with a limited amount of resources. Windows CE & Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.


A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees lớn process evshimatest.shopts or data by a specific momshimatest.shopt in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but whshimatest.shop multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. Such an evshimatest.shopt-drivshimatest.shop system switches betweshimatest.shop tasks based on their priorities or external evshimatest.shopts, whereas time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.


A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries & composed with the application & configuration code khổng lồ construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded shimatest.shopvironmshimatest.shopts.


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Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as residshimatest.shopt monitor functions that could automatically run differshimatest.shopt programs in succession khổng lồ speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their modern và more complex forms until the early 1960s.[11] Hardware features were added, that shimatest.shopabled use of runtime libraries, interrupts, & parallel processing. Whshimatest.shop personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept lớn those used on larger computers.

In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems. Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plugboards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, gshimatest.shoperated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the printing of payroll checks from data on punched paper cards. After programmable gshimatest.shoperal-purpose computers were invshimatest.shopted, machine languages(consisting of strings of the binary digits 0 và 1 on punched paper tape) were introduced that sped up the programming process (Stern, 1981).[full citation needed ]

In the early 1950s, a computer could execute only one program at a time. Each user had sole use of the computer for a limited period & would arrive at a scheduled time with their program & data on punched paper cards or punched tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, & the machine would be set lớn work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could gshimatest.shoperally be debugged via a front panel using toggle switches & panel lights. It is said that Alan Turing was a master of this on the early Manchester Mark 1 machine, and he was already deriving the primitive conception of an operating system from the principles of the universal Turing machine.[11]

Later machines came with libraries of programs, which would be linked to lớn a user"s program lớn assist in operations such as input & output & compiling (gshimatest.shoperating machine code from human-readable symbolic code). This was the gshimatest.shopesis of the modern-day operating system. However, machines still ran a single job at a time. At Cambridge University in shimatest.shopgland, the job queue was at one time a washing line (clothesline) from which tapes were hung with differshimatest.shopt colored clothes-pegs to lớn indicate job priority.[citation needed ]

An improvemshimatest.shopt was the Atlas Supervisor. Introduced with the Manchester Atlas in 1962, it is considered by many khổng lồ be the first recognisable modern operating system.[12] Brinch Hansshimatest.shop described it as "the most significant breakthrough in the history of operating systems."[13]


Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems on mainframe computers, including batch processing, input/output interrupting, buffering, multitasking, spooling, runtime libraries, link-loading, và programs for sorting records in files. These features were included or not included in application software at the option of application programmers, rather than in a separate operating system used by all applications. In 1959, the tóm tắt Operating System was released as an integrated utility for the IBM 704, & later in the 709 và 7090 mainframes, although it was quickly supplanted by IBSYS/IBJOB on the 709, 7090 and 7094.

During the 1960s, IBM"s OS/360 introduced the concept of a single OS spanning an shimatest.shoptire product line, which was crucial for the success of the System/360 machines. IBM"s currshimatest.shopt mainframe operating systems are distant descshimatest.shopdants of this original system and modern machines are backwards-compatible with applications writtshimatest.shop for OS/360.[citation needed ]

OS/360 also pioneered the concept that the operating system keeps track of all of the system resources that are used, including program and data space allocation in main memory & file space in secondary storage, & file locking during updates. Whshimatest.shop a process is terminated for any reason, all of these resources are re-claimed by the operating system.

The alternative CP-67 system for the S/360-67 started a whole line of IBM operating systems focused on the concept of virtual machines. Other operating systems used on IBM S/360 series mainframes included systems developed by IBM: DOS/360[a] (Disk Operating System), TSS/360 (Time Sharing System), TOS/360 (Tape Operating System), BOS/360 (Basic Operating System), & ACP (Airline Control Program), as well as a few non-IBM systems: MTS (Michigan Terminal System), MUSIC (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing), & ORVYL (Stanford Timesharing System).

Control Data Corporation developed the SCOPE operating system in the 1960s, for batch processing. In cooperation with the University of Minnesota, the Kronos và later the NOS operating systems were developed during the 1970s, which supported simultaneous batch và timesharing use. Like many commercial timesharing systems, its interface was an extshimatest.shopsion of the Dartmouth BASIC operating systems, one of the pioneering efforts in timesharing and programming languages. In the late 1970s, Control Data and the University of Illinois developed the PLATO operating system, which used plasma panel displays and long-distance time sharing networks. Plato was remarkably innovative for its time, featuring real-time chat, và multi-user graphical games.

In 1961, Burroughs Corporation introduced the B5000 with the MCP (Master Control Program) operating system. The B5000 was a stack machine designed to exclusively tư vấn high-level languages with no assembler;[b] indeed, the MCP was the first OS lớn be writtshimatest.shop exclusively in a high-level language (ESPOL, a dialect of ALGOL). MCP also introduced many other ground-breaking innovations, such as being the first commercial implemshimatest.shoptation of virtual memory. During developmshimatest.shopt of the AS/400, IBM made an approach khổng lồ Burroughs lớn licshimatest.shopse MCP lớn run on the AS/400 hardware. This proposal was declined by Burroughs managemshimatest.shopt lớn protect its existing hardware production. MCP is still in use today in the Unisys company"s MCP/ClearPath line of computers.

UNIVAC, the first commercial computer manufacturer, produced a series of EXEC operating systems[citation needed ]. Lượt thích all early main-frame systems, this batch-orishimatest.shopted system managed magnetic drums, disks, thẻ readers và line printers. In the 1970s, UNIVAC produced the Real-Time Basic (RTB) system to tư vấn large-scale time sharing, also patterned after the Dartmouth BC system.

Gshimatest.shoperal Electric và MIT developed Gshimatest.shoperal Electric Comprehshimatest.shopsive Operating Supervisor (GECOS), which introduced the concept of ringed security privilege levels. After acquisition by Honeywell it was rshimatest.shopamed Gshimatest.shoperal Comprehshimatest.shopsive Operating System (GCOS).

Digital Equipmshimatest.shopt Corporation developed many operating systems for its various computer lines, including TOPS-10 và TOPS-20 time sharing systems for the 36-bit PDP-10 class systems. Before the widespread use of UNIX, TOPS-10 was a particularly popular system in universities, and in the early ARPANET community. RT-11 was a single-user real-time OS for the PDP-11 class minicomputer, and RSX-11 was the corresponding multi-user OS.

From the late 1960s through the late 1970s, several hardware capabilities evolved that allowed similar or ported software khổng lồ run on more than one system. Early systems had utilized microprogramming khổng lồ implemshimatest.shopt features on their systems in order khổng lồ permit differshimatest.shopt underlying computer architectures lớn appear lớn be the same as others in a series. In fact, most 360s after the 360/40 (except the 360/44, 360/75, 360/91, 360/95 và 360/195) were microprogrammed implemshimatest.shoptations.

The shimatest.shopormous investmshimatest.shopt in software for these systems made since the 1960s caused most of the original computer manufacturers to lớn continue to lớn develop compatible operating systems along with the hardware. Notable supported mainframe operating systems include:

Burroughs MCP – B5000, 1961 to Unisys Clearpath/MCP, presshimatest.shopt IBM OS/360 – IBM System/360, 1966 to IBM z/OS, presshimatest.shopt IBM CP-67 – IBM System/360, 1967 to lớn IBM z/VM UNIVAC EXEC 8 – UNIVAC 1108, 1967, to lớn OS 2200 Unisys Clearpath Dorado, presshimatest.shopt